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Scientific References

1) Skin Science: the cutting-edge research behind Skin Microbiome (MIRR™) technology:

Natural skin surface pH is on average below 5, which is beneficial for its resident flora. Lambers H, Piessens S, Bloem A, Pronk H, Finkel P. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2006 Oct;28(5):359-70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18489300

The Skin’s Acid Coating: Researchers Explain Its Origin And How It Maintains Skin Integrity. ScienceDaily. University Of California – San Francisco. (2001, August 17). www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/08/010817082438.htm

Disruption of the transmembrane pH gradient–a possible mechanism for the antibacterial action of azelaic acid in Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bojar RA, Cunliffe WJ, Holland KT. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1994 Sep;34(3):321-30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7829407

Daily shower may be bad for your skin. Docs suggest ‘soak and smear’. Dr. Casey Carlos, assistant professor of medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine. http://www.today.com/health/daily-shower-may-be-bad-your-skin-docs-suggest-soak-2D79325796

Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Kang MS, Oh JS, Lee SW, Lim HS, Choi NK, Kim SM. J Microbiol. 2012 Feb;50(1):137-42. Epub 2012 Feb 27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367948

Natural Food Antimicrobial Systems – Edited by A . S . Naidu CRC Press 2000 http://www.crcnetbase.com/isbn/9781420039368

Propionibacterium acnes: infection beyond the skin. Perry A, Lambert P. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011 Dec;9(12):1149-56. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22114965

Sebum free fatty acids enhance the innate immune defense of human sebocytes by upregulating beta-defensin-2 expression. Nakatsuji T, Kao MC, Zhang L, Zouboulis CC, Gallo RL, Huang CM. J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Apr;130(4):985-94. Epub 2009 Dec 24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20032992

I shower once a week. Here’s why you should too. Donnachadh McCarthy, The Guardian, 8th March 2016 https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/mar/08/shower-once-a-week-polluting-environment

Let them eat dirt! Our obsession with hygiene is jeopardising our children’s health. Daily Telegraph, Eleanor Steafel, 13 JUNE 2016,  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/good-news/2016/06/11/our-obsession-with-hygiene-is-jeopardising-our-childrens-haelth/

Healthy Food, Healthy Gut, Happy Child: The Real Dirt on Raising Healthy Kids in a Processed World Dr Maya Shetreat-Klein https://www.panmacmillan.com/authors/maya-shetreat-klein/healthy-food-2c-healthy-gut-2c-happy-child

Why cleanliness is ruining kids’ health, Dr B Brett Findlay | Dr Marie-Claire Arrieta
September 24 2016,  The Times,  http://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/let-them-eat-dirt-how-cleanliness-is-ruining-kids-health-59ldm50xs

LET THEM EAT DIRT, Dr B Brett Findlay | Dr Marie-Claire Arrieta http://letthemeatdirt.com/

“The complex host– microbe and microbe–microbe interactions that exist on the surface of human skin illustrate that the microbiota have a beneficial role, much like that of the gut microflora.”
https://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1365-2133.2008.08437.x

“Antibiotics kill the bacteria we do want, as well as those we don’t. Early evidence from my lab and others hints that, sometimes, our friendly flora never fully recover.”
“Overuse of antibiotics could be fuelling the dramatic increase in conditions such as obesity, type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies and asthma, which have more than doubled in many populations.” https://www.nature.com/articles/476393a

“We thus hypothesize that modulation of the gut microbiome (e.g., via diet, probiotics) to maintain a healthy gut microbiome will promote healthy aging. We further hypothesize that modulation of the disturbed gut microbiome to a healthy one in the elderly with chronic diseases will alleviate their symptoms and increase the quality of their lives ” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366966/

“These discoveries illustrate that a properly functioning skin microbiome protects against pathogenic organisms, whereas disruption in the microbiotic environment encourages atopic disease.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6920876

“Accordingly, murine studies show that dysbiosis and reduced diversity of skin microbes can influence the development of cutaneous inflammation and disease” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5568566/

“In this model, the delicate balance of the skin barrier and innate immunity combine to maintain healthy skin, and disturbance of this balance can predispose the host to a number of cutaneous infectious and inflammatory conditions.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2746716/

2) The Huge Growth in Skin Disease & Allergies since the mid-20th Century.

Taylor B, Wadsworth J, Wadsworth M, Peckham C (December 1984). “Changes in the reported prevalence of childhood eczema since the 1939-45 war”. Lancet 2 (8414): 1255–7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(84)92805-8.PMID 6150286. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6150286

Simpson CR, Newton J, Hippisley-Cox J, Sheikh A (March 2009). “Trends in the epidemiology and prescribing of medication for eczema in England”. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 102 (3): 108–17.doi:10.1258/jrsm.2009.080211. PMC 2746851.PMID 19297652
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19297652

Trends in the epidemiology and prescribing of medication for eczema in England – Allergy & Respiratory Research Group, Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, 20West Richmond Street, Edinburgh EH8 9DX, UK http://www.jrsm.rsmjournals.com/content/102/3/108.full.pdf

The allergy epidemic – Prof Jonathan Brostoff, Dr Michael Radcliffe, Dr Harsha Kariyawasam, Dr Diana Church, Prof Martin Church http://www.allergyclinic.co.uk/epidemic.htm

Psoriasis: a general overview. – Department of Dermatology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester LE1 5WW. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2006 May;67(5):259-62. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16729637

The Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy position statement: summary of allergy prevention in children https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2005/182/9/australasian-society-clinical-immunology-and-allergy-position-statement-summary

Probably the best research paper on the links between the skin microbiome, skin integrity & food allergies:
https://www.worldallergyorganizationjournal.org/article/S1939-4551(19)30028-6/fulltext

A simplified introduction to how “leaky” skin may confuse the immune system and lead to food allergies.
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/health/food-allergy-skin-contact-excema-health-a8831421.html

An in depth look at the skin allergy epidemic’s relation to the interaction between the gut, lung, and skin microbiomes.
https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI124610

“Emerging evidence for the role of the skin in food allergy
There is growing evidence pointing to the skin as the main site of sensitization to food allergens, particularly peanut.”

A Lancet article on the emerging evidence for the role of the skin in food allergy:
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.04.012

Skin inflammation’s link with the development of Peanut Allergy in Childhood:
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa013536

An early Nature report on why eczema sufferers are more disposed to getting other allergies:
https://www.nature.com/articles/479S12a

How early intervention in treating eczema may treat food allergies too:
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2008.04.032

One of several papers describing the link between an unhealthy (non-diverse) skin microbiome and eczema:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4122000/

How the Microbiome in the Gut-Skin Axis affects Atopic Dermatitis
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4122000/

A simplified Health Service document on this causal link between eczema and food allergies:
https://www.ouh.nhs.uk/patient-guide/leaflets/files/14460Peczema.pdf

3) The medical benefit of the natural ingredients:

29th volume in the Studies in Natural Product Chemistry – Atta-ur- Rahman. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/bookseries/15725995/29/part/PJ USE OF SODIUM CHLORIDE FOR TREATING ACNE AND/OR ROSACEA Taylor, Lesli A. (820 Churchill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27514, US) Bass, Ralph L. (820 Churchill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27514, US) http://www.freepatentsonline.com/EP0814817.pdf

Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of yucca schidigera: A review http://www.journal-inflammation.com/content/3/1/6

Anti-inflammatory activities of hederagenin and crude saponin isolated from Sapindus mukorossi – Takagi, K., Park, E.H., Kato, H.Gaertn. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) (1980) 28(4):1183-8.

Triterpene saponins from Cyclamen mirabile and their biological activities. – Calis, I; Satana, ME; Yuruker, A; Kelican, P; Demirdamar, R; Alacam, R; Tanker, N; Ruegger, H; Sticher, O. Journal of Natural Products (1997) 60(3): 315-318. Antifungal and molluscicidal saponins from Serjania salzmanniana. – Ekabo, OA; Farnsworth, NR; Henderson, TO; Mao GuoHua; Mukherjee, R. Journal of Natural Products (1996) 59(4): 431-435

Healing Honey: The Sweet Evidence Revealed. ScienceDaily. SAGE Publications (2006, April 7). Retrieved October 31, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2006/04/060407151107.htm

Anti inflammatory effect of natural honey on bovine thrombin-induced oxidative burst in phagocytes – Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19142984

Complementary and alternative medicine therapies in acne, psoriasis, and atopic eczema: results of a qualitative study of patients’ experiences and perceptions. – Magin PJ, Adams J, Heading GS, Pond DC, Smith W. J Altern Complement Med. 2006;12(5):451-7. http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/eczema–000054.htm#ixzz2ApnE2TGH

Effects of pH on antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of tea saponins https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00217-009-1014-3

Antimicrobial activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Rheum emodi extracts against H pylori: In vitro and in vivo studies http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/12/7136.pdf

Biological effects of essential oils – A review – Food and Chemical Toxicology Volume 46, Issue 2, February 2008, Pages 446–475 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278691507004541

Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences Evaluation of Antigonorrhoeal Activity of Saponins Extract of Sapindus Mukorossi Gaertn. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences http://www.rjpbcs.com/pdf/2012_3(2)/[54].pdf

In vitro antifungal activity of triterpenoid saponins. Laboratoire de Botanique et Cryptogamie, Faculté de Pharmacie, Marseille, France. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8134417

Systemic treatment of severe atopic eczema: a systematic review. Schmitt J, Schakel K, Schmitt N, Meurer M. Acta Derm Venereol. 2007;87(2):100-11. http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/eczema–000054.htm#ixzz2ApnPXfgO

Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema, School of Applied Science, South Bank University, London, UK. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10960901

“EOs may have “eubiotic” effects thanks to their capability to control and modulate bacterial growth, acting both as bacteriostatic or bactericidal agents.” Natural Compounds in the Modulation of the Intestinal Microbiota: Implications in Human Physiology and Pathology https://www.intechopen.com/online-first/natural-compounds-in-the-modulation-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-implications-in-human-physiology-an

Antimicrobial Properties of Plant Essential Oils against Human Pathogens and Their Mode of Action: An Updated Review https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3012462/?fbclid=IwAR3Ph-CvOAsX34kYmNZAxZfM7zS26r2GihHIWB_XXu-cMq448JoaIschuJk

“Alpha Hydroxy Acids for Skin Care”. Cosmetic Dermatology, Supplement: 1–6. October 1994. An evaluation of the effect of an alpha hydroxy acid-blend skin cream in the cosmetic improvement of symptoms of moderate to severe xerosis, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, and ichthyosis. Kempers S, Katz HI, Wildnauer R, Green B. Source Minnesota Clinical Study Center, Fridley http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9640557

Role of Emblica officinalis in Prevention of Skin Disease, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/302044792_Role_of_Emblica_officinalis_in_Prevention_of_Skin_Disease#pf5

4) The Health Dangers of synthetic chemicals in cosmetics.

In Vitro Neurotoxicity of Methylisothiazolinone, a Commonly Used Industrial and Household Biocide, Proceeds via a Zinc and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Pathway, Shen Du, BethAnn McLaughlin, Sumon Pal, and Elias Aizenman, Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261. http://www.jneurosci.org/content/22/17/7408.full.pdf

Methylisothiazolinone, A Neurotoxic Biocide, Disrupts the Association of Src Family Tyrosine Kinases with Focal Adhesion Kinase in Developing Cortical Neurons, Kai He, Jason Huang, Carl F. Lagenaur and Elias Aizenman, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics June 2006, 317 (3) 1320-1329; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.106.103044

Chemical Irritant In Cosmetics Banned In Europe: MIT Leads To Epidemic In Skin Allergies, EczemaDec 18 2013, Lizette Borreli. http://www.medicaldaily.com/chemical-irritant-cosmetics-banned-europe-mit-leads-epidemic-skin-allergies-eczema-265379

Louise Hulland, Watchdog (BBC 1) Methylisothiazolinone 4 Nov 2013 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=28hyTi56MTo

Shampoo ‘risk to unborn babies’, (BBC News) Monday, 6 December, 2004 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/4071401.stm

Warning over ‘epidemic’ of skin allergies from chemical in cosmetics and household products, Daily Telegraph, Claire Duffin, 07 Jul

2013, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/10164452/Warning-over-epidemic-of-skin-allergies-from-chemical-in-cosmetics-and-household-products.html

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